Sir Charles Normand obtained the DSc (1913) from University of Edinburgh, UK specializing in atmospheric science and Meteorology. He served as the Director-General of Observatories, Meteorological Office, Pune.
Academic and Research Achievements:Normand had specialized in upper air problems. His work provided upper air data which are of utmost importance to aviation and to a better understanding of the structure of the atmosphere. He also made special studies of particular weather phenomena like Nor’westers of Bengal, depressions, etc. by means of intensive soundings of the atmosphere. The Indian Meteorological Department developed a special radiosonde suitable for use in India. Normand was the first to introduce the concept of wet-bulb potential temperature, which is practically an invariant in adiabatic processes in the atmosphere. He introduced another invariant quantity, ‘equivalent potential temperature’, which is a single – valued function of wet – bulb potential temperature. With the passage of time and the growing volume of upper air data these two quantities have proved most useful in the analysis of weather. Normand will be remembered for a theorem after his name, which finds a prominent place in reference books on atmospheric thermodynamics.
Other Contributions:Normand was the Member of the Academy Committee representing the All India Government Departments formed by the Indian Science Congress Association for drafting the constitution of INSA.
Awards and Honours:Normand was awarded CIE (1938); Symons Medal, Royal Meteorological Society (London) (1944); President (twice), Mathematics and Physics Section, Indian Science Congress (1931, 1938); Vice-President, International Aerological Commission for Region D (comprising India, East Indies and the Dar East); Member, Council (1935-40, 1944), Vice-President (1941-42), INSA. He was Knighted (1945)